Numerical and experimental evidence for a new interpretation of residence times in space. (arXiv:2110.11213v1 [])

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    We investigate the energy dependence of Jovian electron residence times,
    which allows for a deeper understanding of adiabatic energy changes that occur
    during charged particle transport, as well as of their significance for
    simulation approaches. Thereby we seek to further validate an improved approach
    to estimate residence times numerically by investigating the implications on
    previous analytical approaches, and possible effects detectable by spacecraft
    data. Utilizing a propagation model based on a Stochastic Differential Equation
    (SDE) solver written in CUDA, residence times for Jovian electrons are
    calculated over the whole energy range dominated by the Jovian electron source
    spectrum. We analyse the interdependences both with the magnetic connection
    between observer and the source as well as between the the distribution of the
    exit (simulation) times and the resulting residence times. We point out a
    linear relation between the residence time for different kinetic energies and
    the longitudinal shift of the 13 month periodicity typically observed for
    Jovian electrons and discuss the applicability of these findings to data.
    Furthermore, we utilize our finding that the simulated residence times are
    approximately linearly related to the energy loss for Jovian and Galactic
    electrons, and develop an improved analytical estimation in agreement with the
    numerical residence time and the longitudinal shift observed by measurements.

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